The news media — particularly CNN and Fox News Channel — took their share of lumps Tuesday and Wednesday for sensationalizing coverage of the Baltimore uprising, but some outlets made an effort to explain the unrest's decades-old underlying causes and resisted impulses to paint residents with a broad brush.
Editorial boards nationwide told readers that, yes, it could happen in their towns.
A mother who physically and publicly reprimanded her 16-year-old son after she saw him throwing rocks at police was hailed as a heroine but also criticized as too old-school. The video of the mother in action went viral.
Meantime, "The Baltimore Sun on Monday broke its record for daily pageviews, more than doubling its previous high mark, "Benjamin Mullin wrote Wednesday for the Poynter Institute, quoting Matthew Bracken, the newspaper's director of audience engagement and development.
The Huffington Post named the Sun to its "What's Working Honor Roll" after the newspaper announced on Monday that it would suspend its paywall and offer free access to its coverage.
On social media, the actions of ordinary Baltimoreans participating in cleanups and other peaceful actions were posted as a counterpoint to what users said was negative media coverage. Monday's violence caused more than 150 fires, resulted in more than 200 arrests and left 15 police officers injured.
"Here are 10 powerful images showing a very different side to Baltimore than the one you saw on television," Natasha Noman wrote Tuesday for mic.com.
However, medium.com demonstrated, not all photos posted on social media are genuine.
Morgan State University journalism students began producing stories on Baltimore for USA Today's student news website. The first, by Aaliyah Turnage, was headlined, "Cleanup efforts begin in Baltimore."
The Washington Post ran a front-page story by Michael A. Fletcher, "What you really need to know about Baltimore, from a reporter who’s lived there for over 30 years."
NPR's "Morning Edition" host Steve Inskeep visited the city and reported, "On the morning after Monday's violence, residents of this area were busy on almost every street — bagging up debris from a looted liquor store or pushing brooms along the sidewalk.
"They did this even though they weren't sure the violence was over. . ."
However, television reporters such as Fox News' Geraldo Rivera and CNN's Don Lemon found news sources pushing or walking away from them, and community leaders, being interviewed, challenged some television hosts' faulty assumptions.
Even President Obama commented on the television coverage Tuesday in a lengthy answer to a question at a White House Rose Garden news conference with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
"The violence that happened yesterday distracted from the fact that you had seen multiple days of peaceful protests that were focused on entirely legitimate concerns of these communities in Baltimore, led by clergy and community leaders," Obama said. "And they were constructive and they were thoughtful, and frankly, didn’t get that much attention.
"And one burning building will be looped on television over and over and over again, and the thousands of demonstrators who did it the right way I think have been lost in the discussion. . . ."
Still, the Sun's media critic, David Zurawik, wrote that his city needed the harsh media glare.
"We cannot let politicians try to blame the media for highlighting the dysfunction of Baltimore as Bernard 'Jack' Young, the city council president, did in a press conference with [Mayor Stephanie] Rawlings-Blake Monday night," Zurawik wrote on Tuesday.
" 'I just want to say this because I'm heartbroken and disturbed by the way the media is focusing on the negativity of this city and not the great things that are going on in the city,' Young said. 'We have young people who are out there protesting peacefully, but you're not focusing on them. You're focusing on those that are burning buildings and rioting through the streets of Baltimore. Show the positive people who are trying to stop them from doing this.'
"Number one, every channel I saw offered major coverage of ministers who walked the streets and tried to bring some order to them Monday.
"Number two, by and large, most channels avoided the TV tricks used to make civil unrest look more dramatic. They did not show the same one or two cars burning over and over to make it look like there were more fires than there actually were. By nightfall, there were plenty of fires to cover.
"And, thanks in large part to the heavy use of helicopter shots, almost no one relied on tight close-up shots that made small crowds look larger. Even on the ground, wide angle shots were widely used — shots that gave a more accurate representation of the size of the groups generating the violence.
"Young himself said what he saw reminded him of the riots in 1968 after the assassination of Martin Luther King.
"That's the news, Mr. Young, the fact that somehow for all our talk of progress, we are back to a state of existence in Baltimore that reminds us of the violence, danger and chaos of 1968.
"That's the story that needs to be covered with everything we've got — as unpleasant as it might be. And all the lame political-P.R. talk about how the media isn't 'positive' enough isn't going to get it any more. . . ."
Sam Brodey and Jenna McLaughlin, Mother Jones: Eyewitnesses: The Baltimore Riots Didn't Start the Way You Think
Derrick Clifton, mic.com: 11 Stunning Images Highlight the Double Standard of Reactions to Riots Like Baltimore
Jarvis DeBerry, NOLA.com | the Times-Picayune: Baltimore has an ugly history of police brutality
Jarvis DeBerry, NOLA.com | the Times-Picayune: Who keeps the best data on police shootings? A cop turned professor in Ohio
Neil deMause, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting: NYT Goes to Baltimore, Finds Only Police Worth Talking To
David Edwards, Raw Story: Activist smacks down Wolf Blitzer: 'You are suggesting broken windows are worse than broken spines'
Morgan Eichensehr and Daniel Popper, ajr.org: How the Media Covered the Baltimore Riots
Charles D. Ellison, The Root: Baltimore's Slow Burn of Poverty and Hopelessness
Tyler Falk, Current.org: How Baltimore public radio covered the protests
Craig Harrington, Media Matters for America: The Worst Conservative Media Reactions To The Baltimore Riots
Kali Holloway, AlterNet: 'A Riot Is the Language of the Unheard' — 9 MLK Quotes the Mainstream Media Won't Cite
Lester Holt, "NBC Nightly News": Lester Holt on Some Final Thoughts from Baltimore
Jamilah King, takepart.com: Before Freddie Gray: A Timeline of American Unrest
Andrew Kirell, Mediaite: Baltimore Mayor, Maryland Governor Walk Off Interview with CNN's Don Lemon
Rebecca Klein, HuffPost BlackVoices: Baltimore Students Share What #TheRealBaltimore Is, And It's Not What You're Seeing On TV
Michael Malone, Broadcasting & Cable: Baltimore Stations in Live Mode Amidst Riots
Kelly McBride, Poynter Institute: 2 things newsrooms everywhere should do to cover the cops and the community
Simon McCormack, Huffington Post: Erin Burnett Doesn't Seem To Understand Why Baltimore Protesters Aren't 'Thugs'
Jim Naureckas, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting: 'Why So Much Anger?': If You Don’t Know, Washington Post Won't Tell You
Tina Nguyen, Mediaite: Wilmore Lashes Fox and CNN for Baltimore Coverage: 'F*ck You, Motherf*ckers!'
Lis Power, Media Matters for America: Fox Dismisses Role Of Police Brutality In Sparking Unrest In Baltimore
Justin Pryor, WCCB-TV, Charlotte, N.C.: Mary C. Curtis On The Baltimore Riots
John W. Schoen, Amber Payne and Erin McClam, NBC News: Baltimore Riots: Violence Scarred a City Dealing With Decline for Decades
Jack Shafer, Politico Magazine: CNN Feasts on Baltimore Riot Coverage
Hank Stuever, Washington Post: Is CNN as bad as everyone thinks it is? Yes … and no.
Catherine Taibi, Huffington Post: What's Not Working In Media's Coverage Of Baltimore
Catherine Taibi, Huffington Post: Geraldo Rivera Battles Protesters Who Want Fox News To Leave Baltimore
WBAL NewsRadio 1090 and WBAL-TV, Baltimore: Gang Members Tell WBAL TV Reporter They Did Not Make A Truce To Harm Police
Erik Wemple, Washington Post: Shepard Smith, the racial conscience of Fox News
AJ Woodson, blackwestchester.com: 10,000 Strong Peacefully Protest In Downtown Baltimore, Media Only Reports The Violence & Arrest of Dozens
Editorial boards throughout the country told readers that a situation such as that in Baltimore could happen in their towns, but on the Baltimore Sun's editorial pages the last two days, the focus was on the word "thug" and the accountability of local officials.
"At first, the word 'thug' was so consistently used by city, state and even national leaders to describe the Baltimore rioters — many of them teen-agers — that it seemed a deliberate, coordinated effort to send a message," the Sun editorialized on Wednesday.
"Gov. Larry Hogan, Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake and City Council President Bernard C. 'Jack' Young all decried the 'thugs' hurling rocks at police, looting stores and setting fires throughout the city. But Tuesday, on the same day President Barack Obama joined in the refrain condemning the 'handful of criminals and thugs who tore up the place,' both Ms. Rawlings-Blake and Mr. Young backed away from the term.
" 'We don't have thugs in Baltimore,' the mayor said. 'They're not thugs, they're just misdirected,' the council president said.
"The fact is, we do have thugs in Baltimore according to the dictionary definition of the word, given by Merriam-Webster as 'a brutal ruffian or assassin, gangster, tough.' (It could be argued that some of them were standing alongside Mr. Young and other council members at City Hall on Tuesday: the self-described Crips and Bloods gang members calling for an end to violence in the city.) But whether it's a term that should be used as shorthand for the young people who angrily rioted — or even the looting opportunists — is a different matter. . . ."
The previous day, the editorial board criticized the city administration for lack of leadership.
"As Baltimore spun out of control Monday afternoon and evening, Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake was nowhere to be seen for hours," the board wrote. "When she did emerge for televised news conferences, her demeanor was calm to the point of being flat and expressionless. The city needed to hear about action, not the hours she spent behind the scenes dealing with the 'T's to be crossed and I's to be dotted' to make sure the executive order mandating an evening curfew was just right. . . .
The editorial concluded, "Baltimore has already suffered incalculable damage in terms of destroyed property, injured police officers and civilians, and the tarnished image of the city in the eyes of those who live here, in the suburbs and around the world. Repairing that damage is going to require real leadership. So far, we're not seeing it."
Jon Alexander, the Southern, Carbondale, Ill.: Whites can't understand Baltimore's rage
Charles M. Blow, New York Times: Violence in Baltimore
Melissa Boughton, Post and Courier, Charleston, S.C.: How 2 cities reacted in moment of crisis
James E. Causey, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: I'm not satisfied with just enough
Ta-Nehisi Coates, the Atlantic: Nonviolence as Compliance
Jessica Davis, Baltimore Sun: From 'Officer Friendly' to 'Officer Fear'
Tammerlin Drummond, Oakland Tribune: Former Oakland police Chief Batts in hot seat in Baltimore
Editorial, Baltimore Sun: Transparency and the death of Freddie Gray (April 20)
Editorial, Daily Times, Salisbury, Md.: Violence overshadows Gray's death
Editorial, Daily News, New York: Someone must show Baltimore a way forward — starting with President Obama
Editorial, Frederick (Md.) News-Post: Time to reflect on the spark of racism (April 30)
Editorial, Kansas City Star: Baltimore's experience is a cautionary tale for Kansas City
Editorial, News & Observer, Raleigh, N.C.: Poor communities need more jobs, not more police
Editorial, Philadelphia Daily News: Man, it's hard just to live
Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer: Riots have reasons
Editorial, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: Baltimore's riot: Looters hurt their city and their neighbors
Editorial, St. Louis Post-Dispatch: From Ferguson to Baltimore: The new civil rights movement emerges
Editorial, San Francisco Chronicle: Riots in Baltimore, Ferguson could happen in other U.S. cities
Editorial, Times Union, Albany, N.Y.: Baltimore, USA (April 30)
Allen Johnson, News & Record, Greensboro, N.C.: Why 'a sliver of hope' unraveled in Baltimore
Froma Harrop, Creators Syndicate: Defeatism in Baltimore
Bill Keller, the Marshall Project: David Simon on Baltimore's Anguish
David A. Love, CNN.com: Calling people 'thugs' solves nothing
Courtland Milloy, Washington Post: When rioting began, spotlight shifted from justice for Gray
Phillip Morris, Plain Dealer, Cleveland: Baltimore burns and the serious debate we must have goes up in flames again with it
Clarence Page, Chicago Tribune: A "rough ride" for Baltimore
L.A. Parker, the Trentonian: Can Trenton be Baltimore? In a word, yes
Leonard Pitts Jr., Miami Herald: 'What can I do?'
"Amid Monday's Freddie Gray-related ugly conflict in the streets of Baltimore, TV found a winning and upbeat story line in Toya Graham, who publicly reprimanded her 16-year-old son after she saw him wearing a hoodie and a mask and throwing rocks at police," David Zurawik wrote Wednesday for the Baltimore Sun.
"As much as television gets accused of only looking for violence and negative stories, the truth is there's nothing the medium loves more with big news stories like this than finding and celebrating heroes.
"When TV does it right, the audience is huge.
"After recognizing her son in the Monday afternoon battle between police and what appeared to be a predominantly teenage crowd, Graham came after him and started dragging him home. The video of her slapping him about his head as she pulled the mask from his face and berated him for being on the street went viral with monsters like CBS News doing its best to drive it.
"Scott Pelley's Tuesday night newscast featured an interview with Graham and she was back on 'CBS This Morning' today. Her quote saying that her anger at her son was the result of her not wanting him 'to be another Freddie Gray,' was the soundbite of the day Tuesday. . . ."
Those opposed to corporal punishment disagreed, however.
Jenice Armstrong, Philadelphia Daily News: Baltimore mother in viral video who beat up her son is my kind of mom
Merlene Davis, Lexington (Ky.) Herald-Leader: I might have done the same thing as that Baltimore mom
Ruben Navarrette, Fox News: Hero of Baltimore riots: A mom
Al Tompkins, Poynter Institute: Meet Toya Graham, the Baltimore mother who slapped her rioting son
David Zurawik, Baltimore Sun: Why Toya Graham is such a winning TV story line amid Freddie Gray conflict in Baltimore
"Pew Research Center today released State of the News Media 2015," our annual report surveying the landscape of U.S. journalism, covering topics ranging from the changes driven by mobile devices to the ups and downs of legacy news organizations," Michael Barthel reported for Pew on Wednesday.
"Here are five key takeaways drawn from 13 media sectors we looked at.
"1. Among the top 50 digital news sites based on an analysis of comScore data, 39 get more traffic to their sites and associated applications from mobile devices than from desktop. But mobile visitors don’t stick around as long . . .
"2. Newspapers continue to struggle as an industry, but cable news also saw a significant decline . . ."
"3. Things are looking up for network and local television. . . ."
"4. One area with new momentum: podcasting . . ."
"5. Financially, the legacy news industry has made little progress in securing more of the digital dollar . . ."
Bill Cromwell, medialifemagazine.com: Fact: Newspaper readers prefer print
"When Superstorm Sandy flooding sideswiped the New York Daily News (where I previously worked) in October 2012, editors relocated to a Jewish weekly and a Manhattan law firm before the newsroom was reestablished in the paper's New Jersey printing plant," James Warren wrote Wednesday for the Poynter Institute.
"Now imagine what a prominent Nepalese newspaper editor did after Saturday’s earthquake.
" 'With no electricity, we couldn't work, or sleep, in the office due to the aftershocks,' Kunda Dixit said by phone late Wednesday. 'So we moved the whole operation to my living room.'
"Dixit is a Nepal native and 1985 graduate of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. He's the much-respected editor of both a Nepalese magazine and English language paper, the Nepali Times.
"And he's now, rather unequivocally, battle-tested under the most extreme of operational challenges.
"Dixit's two media outlets, including sales and marketing staff, occupy a three-story building in Kathmandu. But that edifice wasn't secure in the immediate aftermath, so he moved as many of his folks as possible to his house, which has solar power and didn't depend on the crippled local electricity grid.
"And when people were understandably anxious about aftershocks, or Wi-Fi wasn't very consistent, he moved his temporary newsroom out onto his lawn and reported from there. . . . "
Kunda Dixit, New York Times: A View of Katmandu After the Earthquake
David Uberti, Columbia Journalism Review: Reported.ly's video using Google Earth will help you understand the damage in Nepal
James Warren, Poynter Institute: In Nepal, local media are 'scrambling, and doing well'
"When it comes to criticism, journalists are better at giving than receiving," Ruben Navarrette Jr. wrote in his latest column for the Washington Post Writers Group.
"I ruffled feathers at CNN, where I was a contributor until a few weeks ago when we parted amicably. During an interview on a digital network, I said CNN news programs 'cover the wrong stories.' That can't be a secret.
"Most viewers get their fill after three days of wall-to-wall coverage of missing airplanes, or overhyped East Coast mega-rainstorms that never materialize, or — as comedian Keegan-Michael Key joked at the correspondents' dinner, as President Obama's 'anger translator' — two weeks of around-the-clock Ebola coverage. . . ."
Navarrette told Journal-isms that he is now a contributor to the Fox News site. He said by email, "I'm really not in a position to tell you why the network top executives decided not to renew my contract. It's impossible for me to know. You'd have to ask them. I know that the lawyers in Atlanta contacted my agent to renegotiate the contract, and, then a day later, called back to say: 'Oops, we made a mistake. We're not going to pick him up after all.' My editors at CNN.com were also blindsided. Obviously, it was a decision that was made at the top. And that's fine by me. . . ."
Also in the mix, Navarrette said, was that he had asked for more money. "My CNN columns got a ton of reaction, and I worked hard on them. That sort of thing deserves to be fairly compensated. They knew that the new contract was going to be more expensive than the old one, so that may have been a factor as well."
Navarrette also messaged, "Latinos commentators under contract at CNN (Leslie Sanchez, Alex Castellanos etc) tend to last between 6-8 years. That's where I was. And, aside from the contract, I've been on air at CNN for 20 years, from 1995 (back when I was hosting a radio show with Tavis Smiley in LA) to 2015. I had a really, really long run. I'm extremely grateful to CNN and the great people who work there.
"Now I'm excited to contribute to Fox News, and perhaps other networks. I've been contacted by a few. Latinos will figure prominently into the 2016 Presidential election. And so I imagine, as the most widely read Latino columnist in the country, I'll be awfully busy and have lots to contribute. . . ."
A CNN spokeswoman could not immediately be reached for comment.
"A federal judge Tuesday threw out a Pennsylvania law designed to prevent offenders from causing mental anguish to crime victims, calling it an illegal restriction on the right to free expression," Mark Scolforo reported Tuesday for the Associated Press.
"U.S. District Judge Christopher Conner ruled against the law that was enacted quickly late last year after Mumia Abu-Jamal gave a recorded commencement address to a small Vermont college. Abu-Jamal is serving life for the 1981 killing of Officer Daniel Faulkner in Philadelphia.
" 'A past criminal offense does not extinguish the offender's constitutional right to free expression,' Conner wrote. 'The First Amendment does not evanesce at the prison gate, and its enduring guarantee of freedom of speech subsumes the right to expressive conduct that some may find offensive.' . . ."
Meanwhile, on Monday, the ailing prison journalist "was ordered back to the infirmary at SCI Mahanoy in Pennsylvania," Abu-Jamal's supporters wrote. "All that day his attorney Bret Grote was at the prison. No visitors were allowed, he and Pam Africa could not see Mumia.
"There has been no contact with Mumia since Sunday, by his family, doctors, lawyers or supporters and there is grave concern that his condition, untreated and mistreated by prison infirmary doctors, could result in his death. . . ."
New York public radio station WNYC-FM has won a Sigma Delta Chi Award in the Public Service in Radio Journalism category for "NYPD Bruised," WNYC's coverage of the NYPD's use of force in low-level arrests, the station announced on Friday.
"This award recognizes a radio news organization that renders public service through extensive coverage of an issue facing the community it serves," the station said in a news release. "Judges selected this year's honorees from more than 1,600 submissions.
"Following the death of Eric Garner on Staten Island, Robert Lewis, WNYC's criminal justice reporter, and Noah Veltman, a developer and reporter on WNYC's Data News team, examined use-of-force practices of the New York Police Department. This series of in-depth reports, 'NYPD Bruised,' revealed that it is not uncommon for low-level arrests to spiral dangerously out of control, with a relatively small number of officers routinely using unnecessary force.
"While the NYPD devotes tremendous resources into spotting crime trends, it neglects to turn an eye inward, allowing these officers to continue this behavior without reprimand or removal from the streets. The series also found that blacks charged with low-level crimes are far more likely to also face a resisting arrest charge than whites. . . ."
Minhee Cho, ProPublica: 'Segregation Now' Wins Sigma Delta Chi Award
"Tens of thousands of refugees risk their lives trying to get to Europe. Surprisingly this sort of news rarely makes front page in Africa," Claus Stäcker reported Monday for Deutsche Welle, Germany’s international broadcaster. " 'The migrant boat tragedy is not just Europe's problem,' a title by the 'Daily Maverick', a South African daily, silently screams.
"The African Union communications department has been very busy lately, issuing statements on subjects as varied and diverse as the Sudanese elections, the killing of Ethiopian citizens by 'Islamic State' (IS) in Libya, the xenophobic violence in South Africa and the marketing of Africa's 'Agenda 2063' to Polish investors. Nothing, however, on the boatloads of Africans risking everything to escape the continent. Nothing on the hundreds of corpses floating in the Mediterranean. . . ."
Meanwhile, Melissa Bailey reported Tuesday from Perugia, Italy, for NiemanLab, "Before a dramatic capsizing sent European leaders scrambling to address an epidemic of migrant drownings, a team of independent journalists was quietly tracking the problem — and offering an example of cross-border journalism that’s rare in Europe.
"The journalists — a loose association of investigative reporters from across the continent — joined forces in 2013 to answer a seemingly simple question: How many people are dying trying to migrate to Europe?
"It turned out no one was tracking that data, according to French journalist Nicolas Kayser-Bril. Kayser-Bril led a team of journalists to create The Migrants Files — a database and map showing how, when, and where migrants are dying.
"Over 28,000 people have died trying to enter Europe since 2000, the group found. That was before April 18, when a boat of 950 Libyan migrants capsized in the Mediterranean, killing at least 800, and prompting European leaders to hold an emergency summit in Brussels and ramp up search-and-rescue efforts. . . ."
"Stringent laws and increasing violence have combined to imperil journalists and lower the standard of press freedom around the globe, a new report shows," Benjamin Mullin reported for the Poynter Institute. "The report, released Wednesday by a non-governmental organization called Freedom House, includes a country-by-country breakdown showing varying degrees of press freedom worldwide. . . . The report puts press freedom at its lowest level in over a decade . . ."
"Matthew Luke . . . a former Al Jazeera America employee who was fired in February, has filed suit against the network complaining of a hostile work environment and claiming a manager made 'discriminatory, anti-Semitic and anti-American remarks,' " Brian Flood reported Tuesday for TVNewser. After the filing, "Al Jazeera America's executive vice president of human resources Diana Lee and the executive vice president of communications, Dawn Bridges, have both resigned," Chris Ariens reported for TVNewser.
"More than two dozen writers including Junot Díaz, Joyce Carol Oates and Lorrie Moore have joined a protest against a freedom of expression award for Charlie Hebdo, signing a letter taking issue with what they see as a 'reward' for the magazine’s controversial cartoons," Alan Yuhas reported Wednesday for the Guardian.
"A Charlie Hebdo cartoonist said he does not plan to draw the Prophet Muhammad anymore," Simon McCormack reported Wednesday for the Huffington Post. " 'I will no longer draw the figure of Mohammed. It no longer interests me,' Renald Luzier, also known as Luz, told Les Inrockuptibles magazine in an interview published on Wednesday and cited by AFP. 'I'm not going to spend my life drawing (cartoons of Mohammed).' . . ."
The late photojournalist Michel du Cille has been selected for the 2015 Lifetime Achievement Award of the National Association of Black Journalists, the association announced on Wednesday.
"Four TV and web series that explode myths, expose hidden trauma and empower the black community moved a big step closer to the small screen after taking home $50,000 to $150,000 in prize money for pilot development from the National Black Programming Consortium’s inaugural Pitch Black event April 23," Jill Goldsmith reported Tuesday for Current.org.
Former U.S. Rep. Lincoln Díaz-Balart, R-Fla., has joined Univision as a political analyst, "a role that will extend across all of UCI’s television, radio and digital platforms," the network announced on Wednesday. Díaz-Balart represented South Florida in the House of Representatives from 1993 to 2011.
"Washington D.C.'s Mayor [Muriel] Bowser has largely upheld the refusal of the D.C. Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) to produce body camera videos in response to a D.C. Freedom of Information Act request" submitted by the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, Adam Marshall reported Tuesday for the committee.
"The Publisher of Africa Oil and Gas Report, a magazine focusing on the petroleum sector, Toyin Akinosho, has fled Nigeria, following threats to his life, supposedly on account of scathing revelations about the corruption in the industry published by his magazine," Adebayo Hassan reported Saturday for Nigeria's Premium Times.