What the U.S. Can Do for Congo
Does Hillary Clinton’s recent visit mean that the U.S. is finally willing to get serious about Congo’s crisis?
Hillary Rodham Clinton’s recent trip to Africa included a noteworthy visit to the Democratic Republic of Congo, with a brief stop at Goma, the epicenter of the violence in the east. Clinton’s stopover marked a significant departure from previous U.S. policy with Congo. Her visit, undoubtedly the highest-level visit by an American dignitary ever, represents a genuine attempt by the Obama administration to draw attention to the country’s prolonged crisis.
It seems that green shoots are appearing on the horizon, but much will depend on the behavior of the U.S., which, for far too long, has preferred to outsource our Congo policy to neighboring autocratic regimes. Is there a chance that the decade-and-a-half-long war in Congo is nearing its end? If so, what role can the U.S. play in peacekeeping?
Though surrounded by violence, Goma is a bustling and dusty city located in the Great Rift Valley in the shadow of the stunning Nyiragongo volcano. The physical beauty surrounding the town masks some of the devastation wrought by the brutal civil war and the devastating volcanic eruption in 2002. The city of close to half a million people is actually a refuge from the primarily rural fighting between the government, the armies of Rwanda and Uganda, a U.N.-peacekeeping force and a collection of various militias. With an extensive international humanitarian presence and a central role in the region’s black market trade in minerals, it is at the center of a real estate boom with lakefront houses frequently selling for over a million dollars. It is also home to tens of thousands of internally displaced people fleeing the fighting in the rural areas. Living in ramshackle housing built on top of a lava field, many of these victims suffer silently—grateful to be away from the worst of the fighting, but unable to return to their homes until a more permanent solution is found. During a recent visit, civilians I spoke with repeatedly told me that the only long-term solution for Congo is for the country’s government institutions, including the military, to be strengthened free from foreign intervention.
The war in Congo has many causes including the collapse of the kleptocratic regime of Mobutu Sese Seko. Once a key Cold War ally of the United States, he was abandoned after the fall of the Soviet Union, leaving his government incapable of controlling vast areas of this often impenetrable country. (The country is vast, stretching across the center of the continent.) With such extensive and porous borders, many rebel groups in the region have found Congo a hospitable refuge from the fighting in their home countries—to the detriment of the people living within.
Following the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, close to 1 million perpetrators of the violence fled the encroaching Tutsi army known as the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Its victory and the subsequent ascension of Paul Kagame ended the genocide in Rwanda by essentially exporting its long-running ethnic tensions to neighboring Congo.