The Sordid History of Racial Hoaxes
The faked acid attack in Vancouver, Wash., was just the latest in a long line of lies that play on racial fears. The unusual twist: blaming a black woman.
No one knows why Bethany Storro decided to mutilate her own face with acid late last month. Obviously deeply troubled, she was sane enough to make a calculated decision to maximize sympathy and deflect suspicion. She blamed it on a black person.
And the fake acid attack became the latest twist on a tactic as old as America itself, one that plays into every long-held stereotype of black folks as criminal and violent: the racial hoax. The racial hoax "plays into long-standing fear and part of American folklore, that the main victims of blacks are white women," says Adrian Pantoja, a political scientist at Pitzer College in California who specializes in American racial attitudes. "It’s very strategic because they know they will get the most attention if they claim the perpetrator is black."
The election of a black president has made the racial hoax no less potent, Pantoja says. "Clearly we have not gone beyond race," he says. "The idea of fearing the other, of the fear of blacks, it is going to take a long time for us to rid ourselves of those stereotypes. This fear has been perpetuated by media and these types of allegations."
Storro, a 28-year-old Vancouver, Wash., resident, told police that a black woman approached her, saying, "Hey, pretty girl, would you like drink of this?" and then flung a cup of acid in her face. Storro described the black woman as having a look of jealousy and rage.
Media outlets across the country, and then across the world, picked up the story of the cute young woman whose cream-colored face had been disfigured by some crazed, angry, anonymous black woman. They followed her as she underwent surgery. Oprah called. (The appearance was later canceled.)
The police, as in many of these cases, were skeptical from the start. But little could be done to contain the tide once the media, and the collective imaginations of white America, got ahold of it.
The Columbian, the daily newspaper that broke the story, turned off comments to its site as they became openly racist, and white supremacists staked out the page. Commenters called the alleged attacker a savage beast who deserved the death penalty. Someone said the black woman attacked Storro because of a "lifetime of hostility and resentment" toward a woman who is "white and pretty."Another person suggested the attacker should "fear for her life." These were some of the gentler comments.
Random black women who met the very vague description were stopped and questioned. Money for the victim poured in, and fundraising fliers posted around the 83 percent-white Vancouver called on the community to "help one of our own." When a few bloggers and online commenters and, later, some mainstream media questioned the credibility of Storro’s story, they were attacked for even raising a doubt.
Katheryn Russell-Brown is director of the Center for the Study of Race and Race Relations at the University of Florida and author of the book The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and Other Macroaggressions. She has tracked more than 100 racial hoaxes. White people -- usually white women -- perpetrate the vast majority of them. Black men are almost always the targets. "The image of criminality and race, and African Americans and crime, are very linked in the public mind," she says. "You get additional sympathy for these attacks."