In 1964, Freedom Summer was a campaign to register African Americans to vote in Mississippi, where blacks had historically been prohibited from the ballot. Even amid that intense racial and political climate, style served as a form of self-definition and expression as much as it has during any other time since. Fifty years later, take a look back at what celebrities, activists and everyday African Americans were wearing during this pivotal era of our history:
1. The Conk
Early in the 1960s, African-American men weren’t shy about sporting chemically relaxed hair known as the Conk. This hairstyle was named after congolene, a straightening agent made from lye, often applied at home and mixed with other ingredients such as eggs and potatoes. Some men, like Little Richard, swept their straightened hair into elaborately styled pompadours, while others kept it simple by wearing their processed hair slicked back.
2. Colored Linen Suits
The Temptations were constantly matching from head to toe. Here they don green suits trimmed with white and crisp, white low-cut boots.
3. Feminine Flourish
Diana Ross and the Supremes—Motown’s premier girl group, who rivaled the Beatles during their prime—wore straight and highly stylized wigs. The trio embellished their femininity, performing graceful choreography and appearing onstage in high-fashion gowns and meticulous makeup. The group’s refined, classy image enabled them to appeal to a wide audience.
4. Skinny Ties and Seersucker Suits
The men of the civil rights movement were fashionably notorious for their skinny ties and seersucker suits. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and many other influential figures were frequently photographed rocking this attire.
5. Revolutionary Wear
All-black attire and completely opaque shades, a leather jacket and the option of rocking a beret or perfectly picked Afro was the outfit of choice for many revolutionaries. A “black power” button was an appropriate finishing touch.
6. The Bouffant
Actress Diahann Carroll popularized the bouffant hairstyle, which was created by back-combing hair to add volume and then laying smooth hair on top to create a neat, sophisticated look.
7. Halter Gowns and Keyhole Designs
This style isn’t a new trend, ladies. Josephine Baker flaunted her gorgeous gown with a stunning train for Ebony’s July 1964 issue. It wouldn’t have been true to the dancing legend’s style without the patterned cape, sparking gloves and eccentric updo.
8. Beehives and Cat Eyes
The Ronettes, the New York City-based girl group, were queens of the beehive long before Amy Winehouse revived the retro hairdo. The beehive, featuring long hair coiffed into a conical shape and swept backward, evolved from pageboy and bouffant hairstyles. The “cat eye” was a popular makeup technique of the period that added allure and a sense of drama.
9. Dashiki and Caftan
Blacks turned to garments, prints and accessories that emphasized a connection to Africa. Red, black and green were worn in combination. The style fostered a sense of empowerment and pride that seemed elusive during the struggle for equal rights.
10. Sequin Dresses
These dresses came in various colors and styles and became popular among many performers and models in the 1960s. One of the first African-American supermodels, Donyale Luna, rocked a sequin copper-colored dress in Vogue magazine.
11. Flirty Onesie and Bikini
When women hit the beach for some fun in the sun, they wore tastefully cut swimsuits in bold prints and colors, as seen on this Ebony magazine cover from 1960. The more skin-baring bikini grew in popularity at this time.
12. Patterned Wool Suits, Wide-Brim Hats and Hot Pants
Men weren’t afraid to step out in flamboyant, wool pinstriped and checkered suits paired with a wide-brim hat for added swag. And the ladies opted for hot pants—the shorter the better. As you can see from the photo, pairing short-shorts with tights to extend wear is nothing new.
Taryn Finley and Erin Robertson are summer interns at The Root.