Barack Obama, America's CEO

On Obama: What does his presidency teach America about how black executives lead?

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"On Obama" is a weekly column about Barack Obama and American politics.

On the morning of Nov. 5, 2008, the day after Barack Obama's election, I sat in the office of my Chicago apartment, filled, like most Americans, with a peculiar sense of hope. It seemed that in electing the country's first black chief executive, we'd finally taken a huge step toward becoming a true meritocracy. My friends -- an educated, well-traveled, multiethnic bunch, very much a reflection of Obama's world -- were convinced that the moment signaled the country's new understanding of the tricky road talented African Americans climbed toward professional success -- the "double consciousness" that W.E.B. Du Bois described.

Post-civil rights era blacks who'd invested years overachieving at the best schools and cultivating key relationships at top firms now had more reason to believe that we'd have a credible shot at making partner. Or becoming senior managers at new-media outlets that had apparently broken from the old guard.

Of all the narratives crafted about Barack Obama's presidency so far, few have seriously explored a richly distinctive vein: What is Obama's tenure teaching America about how black executives -- particularly men -- lead? And what role will race play in his assessment this November?

These are hardly trivial questions. Nearly a half-century after the civil rights movement's peak, senior black executives remain a relatively rare phenomenon. The pot of Fortune 500 CEOs who are black is so small, they can be counted on one hand: notably Ursula Burns, of Xerox; Kenneth Chenault, of American Express; and Clarence Otis Jr., of Darden Restaurants, the $7.5 billion purveyor of Olive Garden and Red Lobster.

In many ways, Obama is like any other senior black executive at a blue-chip firm -- except, of course, his case is extraordinarily magnified. It takes a certain mix of restraint and audacity to believe that one can climb from organizing residents on Chicago's South Side to the corner suite -- or the White House -- and still keep a sense of blackness, however that's defined, intact.

By nearly any measure, Obama fits the American presidential ideal: well-educated, highly analytical, empathetic, with a global view. He identifies with nearly everyone, yet remains enigmatic to much of the broad coalition that elected him.

This November, Obama will be assessed -- fundamentally, and rightly -- by the same tangible metrics used to judge his predecessors: the country's economic health, his policies on the environment and education, the closing of the Iraq War and his handling of the Afghan conflict. Our judgments will be influenced by who we are -- and the factors that shape our worldview, including race.

To flesh out this theme, earlier this week I called Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, a brilliant professor at Duke University's Fuqua School of Business, whose research centers on black executives. The first observation, confirmed by data, is this: In the U.S., the ideal leader is white. In this 2008 paper, "The White Standard: Racial Bias in Leader Categorization," from the Journal of Applied Psychology, Rosette's team concluded that white leaders were evaluated most favorably because their race was more easily matched with success, but not necessarily because of stereotypes about blacks.

"Any black trailblazer frequently has to ask the question," Rosette says, "Is the critique based on merit, or because of race?"

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