Over time, the GOP came to concur with the erosion of those rights and allowed Southern whites to take back control of the region from Union troops, to the detriment of African Americans. Southern Democrats remained unwavering in their opposition to black enfranchisement as they became powerful once again in Congress and, eventually, in the presidency.
Held back politically and economically by white Democrats, the few blacks who were allowed to vote in the South were also unwavering in their support of Republicans. The Ku Klux Klan, along with white law enforcement, played the heavy and did the physical dirty work of lynching and of enforcing the status quo.
Former University of Mississippi professor James W. Silver, in his book Mississippi: The Closed Society, accused that state of being “as near to approximating a police state as anything we have seen in America.” That police state, replicated in most Southern jurisdictions, was designed to maintain “segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever,” as Alabama Gov. George Wallace would later put it.
The Republicans had ceded the South to white Democrats, but Northern Republicans continued to be the good guys. They engaged black voters, supported civil rights legislation and social programs, and had moderate-to-liberal reputations in Northern, Western and Eastern states. Then came the Great Depression, which was widely blamed on the Republicans.
Attracted by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal policies — which put poor blacks and whites to work building roads, post offices and other projects — blacks joined the Democratic Party in force (the Roosevelt Northern wing, that is). Thus formed a fragile, almost nonexistent coalition with white Southerners — who held on to power in Congress — that permitted the Democratic Party to dominate presidential elections from 1932 to 1968.
As the great campaigns for civil rights after World War II heated up, the Southerners and Northerners became ever more belligerent toward each other. Fair-employment laws benefiting blacks were adopted in such states as Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois and California, to the utter dismay of white Southerners.