Five years after Hurricane Katrina tore the roof off of Dorothy McClendon’s Biloxi, Miss., home, sending a deluge behind its walls and upending the ramp required for her wheelchair, she is expecting to receive her share of a multimillion-dollar allotment of housing-rehab funds that the Bush administration had tried to divert into expanding that coastal city’s commercial port.
“I didn’t have no choice but to move back into my house, even though it shifted to the west and was completely unlevel after Katrina. Right now, I would say it’s livable and not livable at the same time,” says retiree McClendon, 61, who has muscular dystrophy and whose post-Katrina Federal Emergency Management Agency trailer wasn’t outfitted for the disabled.
McClendon, whose home has been partially rehabbed by a faith-based organization, was a plaintiff in a 2008 lawsuit filed by the Mississippi NAACP, Mississippi Center for Justice, and Gulf Coast Housing Advocates on behalf of those still waiting to rebuild. In what NAACP officials and housing advocates view as a partial victory on the long road to putting the poorest Gulf Coast residents back into their homes, this week the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development reversed a decision to let Mississippi spend — as GOP Gov. Haley Barbour had requested — what would have been roughly $600 million on the port instead of on housing redevelopment, as originally planned.
This week’s settlement between the litigants and HUD earmarks a fraction of that original amount, or $132.8 million, for housing rehab across nine southern-Mississippi counties. Of that, $98.2 million will go to 4,400 already identified households — mainly blacks, Latinos and poor whites employed by Biloxi’s casino-dependent service economy — and $40 million for households yet to be tapped for the rebuilding. But unlike the first phase of government-financed, post-Katrina housing redevelopment, which gave grants directly to the region’s wealthiest and let them build on higher ground while retaining ownership of their beachfront lots, this next phase places the Mississippi Development Authority (MDA) in full control of the $132.8 million. No homeowners will get cash in hand or wholly oversee their own rebuilding.
“My concern is whether the MDA will be fair in its assessment,” says James Crowell, president of the NAACP’s Biloxi branch. “We wanted an independent organization to run the program because the governor has already said he doesn’t believe there are enough people out there to warrant spending that extra $40 million.”
Barbour, who is chairman of the National Governors Association and named as a possible presidential contender in 2012, has repeatedly protested granting more money for housing redevelopment in the flood zone. He argues that homeowners who rebuild won’t buy enough property insurance as a safeguard against future catastrophes like Katrina, thus jeopardizing the state’s property insurers and potentially ultimately demanding that the government underwrite their rebuilding once again.