Why These Slave Women in an Asian Setting Were Important to Dutch Trade 

Image of the Week: Ornate pictorial tiles were used by the Netherlands in a short-lived attempt to establish a trading colony in Brazil.

Dutch, possibly from Delft. Oriental scene with black figures, 1700-20, 179 cm. Polychrome tiles.
Dutch, possibly from Delft. Oriental scene with black figures, 1700-20, 179 cm. Polychrome tiles. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

This image is part of a weekly series that The Root is presenting in conjunction with the Image of the Black in Western Art Archive at Harvard University’s W.E.B. Du Bois Research Institute, part of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research.

A fanciful vision of an exotic, remote Asian land brilliantly expands across the surface of sumptuously colored Dutch ceramic tiles. At the upper right, an elegantly attired goddess pours the streams of her divine blessing over airy pavilions peopled with courtly figures. These Oriental motifs are derived from imported Chinese ceramics, representative of the trend for the incorporation of this imagery in European art known as chinoiserie.

Within this decidedly Eastern setting, prominently placed figures of African descent unexpectedly appear. Two black women stand together just below the center of the composition. One holds a small jar of fruit, while the other carries a pair of spears. Both wear brightly patterned cloths around their waists and ornate feathered headdresses. In the lower-right zone of the panel, a dancing black woman appears to be attacked by armed horsemen, a threat belied by the significant difference in scale between them.

The seemingly incongruous inclusion of the black figures in the scene takes on a more disturbing tone when it is realized that these elegantly attired women are actually slaves, whisked to the Orient by the hand of the artist from a tropical land half a world away. As it turns out, a work of visual art intended merely to entertain has much to say about the complex, contradictory realities of trade and politics that lay behind its conception.

Pictorial tile panels such as this one became a popular form of decoration among the European elite during the 17th and 18th centuries. A single scene was formed of multiple tiles, each several inches on a side. After being fired in the kiln, earthenware tiles were covered with a liquid glaze. A panoply of brilliant colors—red, yellow, green and deep black—was then applied and the tiles fired again. The completed tiles were individually marked and shipped to their final destination, to be reassembled in the correct order.

This example is one of several tile scenes with similarly composed Oriental themes, two of which feature black figures. Contemporary scholarship attributes the group to manufacturers in either Rotterdam or Delft. Most likely they were made around 1700-20, when the vogue for this type of exotic imagery was at its height.

Another tile panel of similar size and theme, now in a museum in Brussels, also features black figures. It resembles the style of this Rijksmuseum panel so closely that it must have been made by the same workshop, and most likely as part of the same commission. Interestingly, the black figures on the two panels are separated by gender, with three women in the Rijksmuseum example, and two pairs of male figures in the panel in Brussels.

Tile pictures of this complexity and sophistication are a comparative rarity within Dutch ceramic production of this period. Quite costly, they were a specialty item made to order as part of extensive programs of interior decoration in some of the most grandly appointed residences of European aristocracy. Two of the Chinese-themed panels mentioned previously are located along the sumptuously tiled walls of the kitchen of the hunting lodge at Amalienburg, part of a complex of imperial buildings outside Munich. Though probably not in their original location, they give a good idea of the intended placement of this kind of ornament.

The imagery adopted by Dutch ceramists for the decoration of their wares provides an aesthetic reflection of the burgeoning social and economic activity of the recently independent provinces of the United Netherlands. The survival of the new nation was staked on the large-scale development of an overseas trading empire.