Which Slave Sailed Himself to Freedom?

100 Amazing Facts About the Negro: Life took him from a daring sea escape to a stint in Congress.

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Harper's Weekly, 1862

Editor's note: For those who are wondering about the retro title of this black-history series, please take a moment to learn about historian Joel A. Rogers, author of the 1934 book 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro With Complete Proof, to whom these "amazing facts" are an homage.

(The Root) -- Amazing Fact About the Negro No. 32: Were there any successful slavery escapes by sea?

Two weeks ago, we saw how Henry Box Brown mailed himself to freedom by carriage, steamer and train. This week, we meet a man who took a more direct route through the very waters where the Civil War began, Charleston Harbor, S.C., from which, incredibly, he sailed himself, his family and the fellow slave members of his crew to freedom.

Just before dawn on May 13, 1862, Robert Smalls and a crew composed of fellow slaves, in the absence of the white captain and his two mates, slipped a cotton steamer off the dock, picked up family members at a rendezvous point, then slowly navigated their way through the harbor. Smalls, doubling as the captain, even donning the captain's wide-brimmed straw hat to help to hide his face, responded with the proper coded signals at two Confederate checkpoints, including at Fort Sumter itself, and other defense positions. Cleared, Smalls sailed into the open seas. Once outside of Confederate waters, he had his crew raise a white flag and surrendered his ship to the blockading Union fleet.

In fewer than four hours, Robert Smalls had done something unimaginable: In the midst of the Civil War, this black male slave had commandeered a heavily armed Confederate ship and delivered its 17 black passengers (nine men, five women and three children) from slavery to freedom.

Sailing From Slavery to Freedom

Our story begins in the second full year of the war. It is May 12, 1862, and the Union Navy has set up a blockade around much of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Inside it, the Confederates are dug in defending Charleston, S.C., and its coastal waters, dense with island forts, including Sumter, where the first shots of the Civil War were fired exactly one year, one month, before. Attached to Brig. Gen. Roswell Ripley's command is the C.S.S. Planter, a "first-class coastwise steamer" hewn locally for the cotton trade out of "live oak and red cedar," according to testimony given in a U.S. House Naval Affairs Committee report 20 years later.

Pictured: Robert Smalls (Library of Congress, c. 1870).

After two weeks of supplying various island points, the Planter returns to the Charleston docks by nightfall. It is due to go out again the next morning and so is heavily armed, including approximately 200 rounds of ammunition, a 32-pound pivot gun, a 24-pound howitzer and four other guns, among them one that had been dented in the original attack on Sumter. In between drop-offs, the three white officers on board (Capt. C.J. Relyea, pilot Samuel H. Smith and engineer Zerich Pitcher) make the fateful decision to disembark for the night -- either for a party or to visit family -- leaving the crew's eight slave members behind. If caught, Capt. Relyea could face court-martial -- that's how much he trusts them.

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