In the aftermath of the Michael Dunn verdict, we’re talking again about how Americans process black boys as inherently violent. And they do.
Yet in an honest, and perhaps more productive, discussion of this topic, we have to allow something uncomfortable—the possibility that language plays a part in the stereotype. To whites, I highly suspect that often, black boys and men have a way of sounding violent.
Without meaning to, though, which makes it all harder to grapple with. Here’s an example:
The other day on the subway I heard two black men in their 30s talking about a misunderstanding that one of them had had at work that day. They were just unwinding after a long day, and yet there was what many might process as a tinge of impending battle in their voices, inflections and gestures. “Man, I wanted to ‘Mmmph!’ [jab of the arm, click of the tongue] Gimme a break! An’ I was like … [putting on a challenging glare] don’t even start.”
And these were perfectly normal guys having a conversation, which, between black men, was perfectly normal in its tone. No black listener would assume these guys actually meant the hints at violence literally. To us, this way of talking just sounds like two guys letting off steam.
However, outside listeners can hear this way of talking as edgy. Men talking this way can sound like they’re about to start something. The New Yorker’s Kelefa Sanneh once came up with a perfect term for this, in the context of writing about rap music and lyrics: a certain “confrontational cadence.”
Yes, trash-talking knows no race. But two equivalent white men talking about the same kind of thing are much less likely to have that particular confrontational cadence than black ones. This way of talking is more deeply seated in black culture, and researchers—sympathetic black academics—have documented it. An article by CUNY’s Arthur Spears, one of the deans of the study of black English, is a useful survey of what he terms black American “directness” in discourse.
“Speech,” Spears writes, “that may appear to outsiders to be abusive or insulting is not necessarily intended to be nor is it taken that way by audiences and addressees.” To grow up black is to know this subconsciously. The tone extends beyond men talking to one another. Spears quotes a father-child exchange: Father: “Go to bed!” Little boy: “Aw, Daddy, we’re playing dominoes.” Father: “I’m gonna domino your ass if you don’t go to bed now.”
No black person would read this as an actual physical threat, but notice that it doesn’t translate gracefully into “white,” where it might be (try to imagine somebody saying that on Modern Family). Nor would “fussin’ ” between women, or rituals such as capping and playing the dozens. There is a theatrical kind of grouchiness to all of this, paralleled by jokes such as Eddie Murphy’s routine about the mother throwing the shoe in Delirious, and even the in-group use of an abusive slur like the n-word.
However, if outsiders hearing it don’t get the joke and wonder whether black people, especially boys, are feisty souls, then the problem is less racism than an intercultural misinterpretation.