Funding Crisis Threatens Black Theater

While black films are having a moment, live-theater companies—often the incubators for African-American talent—are struggling to survive.

Scene from Keith Josef Adkins' The Last Saint on Sugar Hill, currently playing at the National Black Theatre in Harlem
Scene from Keith Josef Adkins' The Last Saint on Sugar Hill, currently playing at the National Black Theatre in Harlem Christine Jean Chambers

With the success of films like Lee Daniels’ The Butler, 12 Years a Slave and now The Best Man Holiday, which surpassed box office expectations this weekend, 2013 is being billed as a banner year for African-American films. But while films with predominantly black casts are thriving, live theater featuring predominantly black casts is not.

The Harlem-based National Black Theatre recently celebrated the start of its 45th season with The Last Saint on Sugar Hill, by African-American playwright Keith Josef Adkins. But in an interview with The Root, Sade Lythcott, CEO of NBT, called black theater companies “an endangered species” and expressed concern that unless drastic measures are taken, companies like NBT may not be in existence 45 years from now.

When news broke last year that Minnesota’s Penumbra, one of the most critically acclaimed black theater companies in the country, was suspending operations it rattled the theater world. Though Penumbra is now up and running again, albeit with a leaner staff, earlier this year more bad news befell those who care about diversity in the theater world: In April, Pittsburgh-based Kuntu Repertory Theatre closed. Founded in 1974, it is credited with being the first resident company to produce and perform a play by the late August Wilson, now considered one of America’s greatest playwrights.

The National Black Theatre has struggled to keep its doors open as well. Though Lythcott stressed that in its entire 45-year history NBT has always managed to produce quality shows, it has experienced setbacks, many of them involving the increasingly tough financial realities facing cultural institutions based in communities of color.

Lythcott explained that her mother, acclaimed Broadway performer Barbara Ann Teer, initially “founded the National Black Theatre out of a need to create roles for African Americas that were not monolithic roles of housekeeper, pimp, hustler.” The theater became legendary for nurturing up-and-coming black artists, one of the most famous being Samuel L. Jackson, who painted sets there. House Rep. Charles Rangel (D-N.Y.) once called NBT “the cultural heartbeat of Harlem.”

Yet it has faced significant financial challenges in the last two decades, beginning with government budget cuts during the Rudy Giuliani administration (the NBT building was financed through public and private funds) and later through messy litigation regarding ownership and financing of the building. Though that uneasy chapter has concluded, today the theater faces perhaps its toughest terrain: a philanthropic world cooling on minority-focused cultural institutions, particularly in the Obama era.

Michael Dinwiddie, president of the Black Theatre Network, proclaimed black theater to be in a state of emergency “because of the perverse notion we have in this country that people are being reverse racist by creating their own cultural institutions.” He went on to explain that “funders would rather give money to a white theater doing a black play than a black theater doing a multiracial play. That’s really problematic—I don’t want to call it reverse racism. Is there such a term as inverse racism? Is that such a term?”

Marshall Jones, producing artistic director of Crossroads Theatre Company, a New Jersey-based African-American theater that was awarded a Tony in 1999 for Outstanding Regional Theatre, likened the current decline of black theaters to the decline of the Negro Leagues following the Major League debut of Jackie Robinson.

“We have BET, TV One, Oprah has her own network. White theaters [on] Broadway are doing black shows. [Nonblack] Regional theaters do August Wilson shows constantly.” Those all sound like impressive strides for black artists but, he noted, “The directors, the producers, the designers aren’t people of color.”