How Slavery Feeds Today’s Racism

The movie 12 Years a Slave exposes why the stubborn roots of institutional oppression refuse to die.

Judy Garland in blackface (Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images); Barneys New York (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
Judy Garland in blackface (Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images); Barneys New York (Mario Tama/Getty Images)

(The Root) — 12 Years a Slave, Steve McQueen’s critically acclaimed movie opening nationwide on Nov. 8, is the most powerful cinematic depiction of slavery ever seen on-screen. The critical buzz surrounding the film has rightfully focused on the combination of its astonishing performances, nuanced script and unflinching examination of antebellum slavery’s impact on a nation founded on declarations of liberty and freedom for all.

But the film’s biggest accomplishment is the way in which its artistry is at once an immersive experience that manages the nearly impossible, creating historical characters whose actions speak clearly and fluidly in conversation with the present.

Anyone who wants to understand the latest controversy over racial profiling at Barneys, a Hollywood actress in blackface for Halloween or an athlete spewing the n-word should immediately view 12 Years a Slave.

Based on the true story of Solomon Northup, a free black man from Saratoga, N.Y., who was kidnapped in 1841 and sold to Southern planters, 12 Years a Slave represents a stunning act of historical recovery, one that is designed to have an impact on a wider audience than any book or piece of scholarship could. By reminding us of a not-so-distant past that defined African Americans as a species of property, the film provides answers to why racism, 150 years after the Emancipation Proclamation, remains stubbornly resistant to defeat.

It does this by revealing history not as we fervently wish it had been but as it actually occurred. Slavery was never merely the “original sin” of the republic or some kind of stain of an otherwise healthy democracy.

Slavery, and its subsequent parsing of groups of human beings based on race, is at the core of our national identity. Once this is understood, our contemporary circumstances become much clearer, even logical. From this perspective it’s quite understandable why Reconstruction failed, despite the heroic efforts of African Americans (and at times white allies) to reimagine a new, more inclusive country that had never been in existence.

Indeed, the first century after slavery’s formal conclusion (1865-1965) featured a national project of racial segregation called Jim Crow that attempted to keep the majority of blacks in a state as close to legal slavery as possible. One hundred years of lynching, violence and segregation created a nation in which the status of African Americans, as well as the economic and political distribution of resources in 1965, looked strikingly similar to that in antebellum America.