Shedding Light on Haiti

Three years after a devastating 2010 earthquake, a renewable energy plan aims to help the nation.

Farmer in Central Plateau of Haiti holding a solar-power light (Courtesy of Soleil Global)
Farmer in Central Plateau of Haiti holding a solar-power light (Courtesy of Soleil Global)

(The Root) — To some extent, the greatest challenge facing Haiti is not just rebuilding the country after the destruction caused by the earthquake in 2010 — it’s tackling the problems the natural disaster exacerbated.

The country’s identity has long been perched between two extremes: Haiti is the first independent black nation in the Western Hemisphere, yet it’s become the poorest. According to an International Red Cross report in 2006, seven out of 10 Haitians were found to be living on less than $2 per day. In addition to those poverty statistics, the lack of adequate health care, public and environmental safety, education and employment are just a few of the chronic issues Haiti has battled for nearly half of a century.

Three years after the earthquake, healing those old wounds is still the key to prosperity for Haiti, even as reconstruction continues. One of the focal points of recent revitalization efforts has been to reestablish the country’s once-fertile agricultural sector by addressing a fundamental (and somewhat tangible) need — light.

Enter Soleil Global. Living up to its name (“soleil” is French for sun), the organization’s mission is “to empower communities through innovative, affordable and sustainable energy solutions.” Founded by Haitian-American social entrepreneur Jacques-Philippe Piverger and chaired by Ayo Roach, a great deal of its work focuses on Haiti. For the past year, SG has concentrated its efforts on the island’s Central Plateau, where a vast amount of farmland still exists. Its aim is to put an inflatable, low-cost solar light in every household without electricity, beginning with those living in that area. They use the light — which was named “Luci” in order to give it a human characteristic. Mpowerd, a New York-based firm, has created and manufactured the device so that it can last up to two years. The lights are one factor that may help local farmers be more productive and assist residents in even the most routine daily chores.

As Haiti had the most arable terrain of all the countries in the Caribbean, farming used to be the country’s primary economic engine for decades after its independence from slavery in 1804. Farming was a means of free enterprise and self-determination for many, but by the 1980s deforestation and the great migration to Port-au-Prince, the urban capital, had hampered this tradition. In addition, there was a flood of international goods onto the domestic marketplace that helped create an overdependence on foreign products, a problem with which the nation struggles today. These factors effectively have led to bankrupting the island’s agricultural system.

As a result, those in the rural sector have simply been getting by. During a November 2011 meeting with potential investors about the nation’s infrastructure, Haitian President Michel Martelly emphasized plainly how vital agricultural sector is today. “Decentralization is a critical cornerstone supporting my vision for a new Haiti,” he said in the New York Times. “We want to strengthen and empower our rural communities and create new ones.”

Though it’s hard to imagine by most Western standards, light is not a commodity many Haitians can take for granted. Energy poverty affects nearly every rural population across the country. And despite the fact that, surprisingly, Haiti as a whole uses very little energy (the equivalent of 250 kilograms of oil per head per year), an estimated 85 percent of the national population — many in farming communities — aren’t connected to the power grid. They depend on nonrenewable biomass such as kerosene and candles, as well as burning wood and charcoal, which has led to rapid soil erosion, climate change and the sharp declination in agricultural yields — not to mention health issues.