When stress mounts for Stephanie Covington Armstrong, she catches herself before reaching for comfort food. Instead she chews over what’s really bothering her. “Once I can identify that, then I’m quickly able to just shift,” she told The Root. “I’ve gone through a lot of therapy, so I’m very aware if I’m on the road to practicing behavior that’s unhealthy.”
Armstrong’s mindfulness is worlds away from the years during which she responded to anxiety by binge eating, followed by hunching over the toilet to vomit, abusing laxatives or taking three consecutive aerobics classes and then doing thousands of sit-ups. Like the estimated 4.2 percent of American women who suffer from bulimia nervosa at some point in their lifetime, Armstrong was gripped by an obsessive cycle of bingeing and purging.
As a black woman, she also reflects growing research that debunks the myth that bulimia is an affluent white girl’s disease — and shows that African Americans are actually more likely to suffer from the disorder.
“Our community doesn’t talk about this stuff,” says Armstrong, who chronicled her battle in the 2009 memoir Not All Black Girls Know How to Eat: A Story of Bulimia. “I have girlfriends who’ve been bulimic, who casually mention it without really having any depth of conversation. Because what black woman wants to admit she can’t eat? No one’s tougher than us. And no one is willing to talk about it.”
The Face of a Disorder
A pioneering 2000 study of black women and eating disorders, published in Archives of Family Medicine, found that black women were just as likely as white women to report recurrent binge eating and vomiting. It also concluded that black women are actually more likely to abuse laxatives or diuretics.
“Not much was surprising because we did this study to provide evidence that eating disorders exist in the black community, which until recently was not a widely held belief,” Denise Wilfley, a lead researcher, told The Root. As director of the Weight Management and Eating Disorders Program at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., which treats patients in the largely African-American city, she had long known that this was the case. “But we were surprised to find that black women used more ‘nontraditional’ purging methods, like laxatives and diuretics.” Because the public strongly associates vomiting with bulimia, Wilfley theorizes, black women may use other means without realizing that they are in fact participating in bulimic behaviors.