When I was a kid, my brother and I could look forward to waking up early, putting on a Juneteenth T-shirt and heading to my grandma’s house. She lived in Hamilton Park, a black neighborhood in north Dallas, and every year on the Saturday closest to Juneteenth, churches, community clubs and local businesses paraded down streets named for Ralph Bunche, Dorothy Dandridge, Harry Belafonte and Ebony magazine.
We would stand on the sidewalk, eager and excited, passing out ice-cold cups of water to the parade participants, as they wiped sweat from their brow under the sweltering Texas sun. It was exciting. Barbecue, Big Red soda and watermelon on June 19 were staples at my house, and though it was sometimes a small celebration in the middle of the week, we celebrated nonetheless.
My mother had enacted a personal corporate holiday for June 19. Her boss always knew that “Elaine is off on June 19.” She would hear from the bourgeois blacks that it was a “celebration of ignorance.” On June 19, 1865, two months and 10 days after Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ullyses S. Grant at Appomattox, when slaves were officially set free, Union General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston with 2,000 federal troops with a message that all slaves were free.
Two months of ignorance? Who would have told the slaves they were free? The slave masters in the Confederate states? How could a slave be ignorant about a freedom they so earnestly longed for? In her eyes, this freedom rang louder than the words of those who couldn’t understand her cause for celebration.
While she was growing up, there were several different perceptions of Juneteenth. In the early ’60s, during the Civil Rights Movement and the move toward integration, Juneteenth symbolized a shame that blacks in Texas slaved longer than the rest of the South. The Black Power Movement in the late ’60s breathed a new life into the celebration, as being black and proud was the formal moniker for the new generation. And as a teen, my mother immersed herself in that new identity.
Black, proud and free.
Black independence day, indeed.
For her it is not about the date of June 19, the barbecue or the parades. It is simply, a celebration of freedom.
She had a much different experience than I did as a Gen. Y-er. Growing up in the suburbs of Dallas, I was one of the few black girls in my neighborhood and in my school. Texas history books mentioned Juneteenth, and the school curriculum breezed through the day, but as far as a lasting impression of my knowledge of Texas history, all I remember is the Alamo.